Connecting countries to climate technology solutions
English Arabic Chinese (Simplified) French Russian Spanish Yoruba

Tonga

Official Name:
Kingdom of Tonga
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Paula Pouvalu Ma'u
Position:
Chief Executive Officer
Phone:
+676 28170
Emails:
paulm@mic.gov.to

Energy profile

Tonga (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Close to 95% of the population of Tonga has access to electricity, with 89% of all households having grid electricity access. All urban centres in the country have access to energy, as well as all rural areas on the main islands of Tonga. Photovoltaic (PV) technology has been used extensively to provide electricity to rural communities, primarily on outer islands that do not have grid supplier power. Transmission infrastructure in the country operates at 11 kV, with 415 V distribution lines.

Renewable energy potential

The Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) has assessed the potential for renewable energy technologies in the country, and determined the following options: Biomass energyAlthough around 65% of the land area is forested for crop production (mostly coconuts), for the near term, there is little opportunity for biomass from forest products to be a significant energy resource. Timber milling is a small scale industry, with mostly senile coconut trees used as raw materials. Pine and hardwoods for export are being planted, but it will take many years until they can be harvested. However, after harvesting, there may be sufficient mill waste to provide biomass for energy. In general, agricultural and forest residues are not considered an exploitable resource for energy production.Biofuels In 1995, potential copra production was estimated to be sufficient to produce around 10 million litres (ML) of coconut oil per year. If rehabilitation efforts for the coconut industry are carried out, and if barriers to the production of biofuels can be eliminated, the maximum offset of diesel fuel by biofuel could be as high as 50%.BiogasAlthough there has been no assessment of the resource, sewage, urban waste and animal manure represent a useful resource. However, the potential is not considered sufficient to offset a significant percentage of petroleum imports, and no projects have been proposed as of yet. Should new sewage treatment facilities or landfill facilities be developed, including biogas generation, they could provide enough energy to operate the facilities themselves, with some surplus to feed into the national grid.Solar energySolar energy resources have a high potential in Tonga, particularly towards the north, where satellite measurements indicate average insolations of up to 5.8 kWh/m2/day. Nearly 20 years of solar powered rural electrification experience confirms that there is a viable resource. Plans are included in the country’s 2010 Energy Road Map to develop a comprehensive renewable resource assessment, including solar resources. A 2008 SOPAC study reported that there are 169 solar PV stand-alone systems in 6 islands in Tonga. Each of these systems has a capacity of 60 W.Wind energyA resource assessment carried out in Tongatapu in 1995 indicated that there is potential to develop wind energy in Tonga. However, due to turbulence issues, locating the turbines away from tall coconut trees will be necessary. Consideration should be given to locating turbines off-shore or in open swamp areas, to avoid turbulence from nearby trees, as well as avoiding land use issues. Average wind speeds for the islands vary between 3 and 6 m/s, with highest averages seen from May to October, and peaks of up to 8 m/s in coastal areas. Geothermal energyThere is a strong evidence of geothermal sources, however, there has not yet been a geothermal energy study for Tonga.HydropowerTonga does not currently utilise hydropower, nor is there any recognised potential for small- or large-scale hydro-electric power generation in the country, primarily due to the topography of the nation.There are sites in Vava’u which could provide tidal energy; however, it is unlikely that the cost of installation can be justified, and the potential resource has not been assessed. In addition, the potential has been recognised for utilising Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Due to the relatively experimental status of this technology, it is unlikely that developments will occur in the near future.

Energy framework

Tonga Energy Road  Map 2010-2020 (TERM)In April 2009, the Government and Development Partners with the coordination of the World Bank (WB), embarked on a process to undertake a sector-wide review and develop an approach to improving the performance of the energy sector and to mitigating the risks. The resulting document entitled the “Tonga Energy Road Map 2010-2020: Ten Year Road Map to Reduce Tonga’s Vulnerability to Oil Price shocks and Achieve an Increase in Quality Access to Modern Energy Services in an Environmentally Sustainable Manner”, or “Tonga Energy Road Map (TERM)” addresses improvements in petroleum supply chain and consideration of price hedging instruments, increased efficiency both in electricity supply and use, development of grid-connected renewable energy resources, improved access to quality electricity services in remote areas, reduced environmental impacts both locally and globally, enhanced energy security, and overall sector financial viability. The scope includes policy, legal, regulatory and institutional aspects of the sector as well as investment. It covers a ten year time period. As technologies, costs, demand for electricity and sources of financing change over time, it is envisioned that the TERM will be periodically updated to take these factors into account. The next TERM review is expected to be completed before the end of 2012.The Government formally adopted the TERM in August 2010 and by doing so, committed to key principles for the energy sector and an indicative implementation plan. The Bank will provide on-going support to the GOT in implementation of the TERM in the form of this project. Other development partners are also working with GOT preparing support for specific aspects of TERM implementation.In 2006, the government, through the Ministry of Lands, Surveys, and Natural Resources and Environment, and their Energy Planning Unit, drafted a National Renewable Energy Policy, with the aim of “the  provision  of  sufficient   socially,  financially,  economically,  technically, politically and environmentally sustainable renewable energy systems”. Commitments made in the policy include the creation of an adequate provision for renewable energy in a legislative framework, the encouragement of co-operation between public and private bodies in the sector, and the encouragement of both foreign and local investment.Tonga is also involved in a number of international programs, and is in receipt of technical and financial assistance from a variety of international institutions. The PIGGAREP program in the country is building on previous collaboration with the Italian government to rehabilitate solar home systems in outlying islands, and the country has received €5.9 million under the EU’s 10th EDF, for renewable energy financing and the development of sustainable livelihoods. In addition, TPL and the government have received assistance from the World Bank in load forecasting, in an effort to better direct improvements in the electricity supply system.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.

  • Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Switzerland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte is an establishment of reflection, research and practice of industrial ecology. The Institute has an engineering division and an expertise cluster, which enables the Institute to identify new technologies linked to industrial ecology and to advise through a specific methodology adapted to local contexts. The project managers work on the practical execution of mandates and on the implementation of the industrial ecology with a particular attention to Switzerland and developing countries.

  • APEC Climate Center

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Korea
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    APCC is a organization that catalyzes climate information-based solutions through three interconnected pillars of work: climate prediction and information services; climate information application and climate change response; and capacity building. APC freely provides value-added, reliable, and timely climate prediction, while serving as a key climate information center to distribute climate data, prediction and related tools, in order to bridge technology gaps globally.