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Tunisia

Official Name:
Republic of Tunisia

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Bouzghaya Fethi
Phone:
+216 70 728 644, +216 70728 655, +216 98567 646
Emails:
bf_fathy@yahoo.fr

Energy profile

Tunisia (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

According to estimates by the state-owned utility company, the degree of electrification for Tunisia as a whole was 99.5% in 2008. In rural areas, the figure was 99%, while 99.8% of the urban areas had access to electricity. Grid coverage is poorest in the south-east of the country. The high connection rate is the result of constant efforts by the government over the past 30 years. In the 1970s, only 6% of the rural population were connected to the power grid, while around 1990 the figure was still only about 50%.In 2009, the transmission network length of the country reached 5,787 km, of which 2,787 km were 225 kV, 1,812 km were 150 kV, and 1,188 km of 90 kV. Distribution networks covered 142,513 km of lines in 2009, 50,654 km of medium voltage, and 91,859 km of low voltage. The transmission network is connected to Europe through networks in Algeria and Morocco. Interconnection with Libya will allow for the possibility of, interconnection from Syria through Libya, Egypt and Jordan.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energySurprisingly, renewable energy in Tunisia is not based primarily on solar power, even though this would seem to be the most abundant national renewable resource.  Although the country has a very high solar potential with more than 3,200 hours of sunshine per year, and an average daily insolation of 5.0-5.5 kWh/m2, production of solar energy is still not considered cost competitive enough, and is largely limited to use in domestic water heating systems and in certain community projects. It is only now that the private sector is beginning to explore the commercial applications for solar power in Tunisia, which until recently were not sufficiently cost-effective. Solar water heaters contributed approximately 44 ktoe to the primary energy supply in 2011, and targets set in 2008 were to achieve a total solar water heater capacity of 740,000 m2 by the end of 2011. The 2010-2016 Solar Plan covers 40 potential solar projects, and when completed, is expected to reduce national energy consumption by 660 ktoe per annum, compared to a business-as-usual scenario.Wind energyThe development of wind energy, which does not immediately spring to mind when considering possible renewable sources in the sun-baked North African country, is expanding fast.  Studies indicate that Tunisia could eventually generate 1,000 MW from wind energy, and when newly launched projects are completed, this source will account for 4% of national energy production, compared with 3% in Europe and only 1% in North America. Several sites have been identified as having good potential for the use of wind power, with average wind speeds of 5.9-7.5 m/s at 80m. Wind power generation sources totalled 240 MW in 2011, with a contribution of 144 ktoe to the national energy supply, including the 55 MW, STEG-operated El Haouaria wind farm. STEG is commissioning a further 186 MW of wind capacity at Bizerte, expected to be fully operational by September 2010.Biomass energyTraditional wood and charcoal fuels are still utilised in some rural households. Projects are in place to disseminate more efficient biomass stoves. The potential for biomass gasification has been identified - a pilot project involving gasification through poultry waste has been launched. In addition, CDM projects have been established in conjunction with Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale ZusammenarbeitAssistance (GIZ) utilising biomass energy. A 10 MW waste-to-electricity project at the Jebel Chakir landfill has also recently been implemented. Domestic production of organic waste was estimated at about 6 million tons/year in 2009: 2.2 million tons of household waste; 2.2 million tons from farms and agro-industry; 1 million tons from olive oil processing; 400,000 tons from poultry droppings and 200,000 tons from waste water treatment.4. A proposed Government project, in collaboration with the World Bank, focuses on the rural/agro-business production of biomass.Geothermal energyTunisia has a substantial geothermal potential, primarily thermal waters. Utilisation currently extends to the heating of greenhouses, spas, resorts and other heat-dependent activities as well as being used in ice production. Geothermal resources are taken from the ‘Continental Intercalaire’ aquifer: the deep aquifer or CI, which is characterized by relatively hot water (between 30 and 80°C) and depths reaching 2,800 m. The resources are located in a reservoir of 1,000,000 km² which covers the regions of Kebili, Tozeur, Gabes and the extreme south, and extends to Algeria and Libya.HydropowerBy 2008, 62 MW of hydro-electric power generation capacity was installed in the country. 17 ktoe was contributed to the 2011 primary energy balance from hydropower. Tunisia's gross theoretical hydropower potential was estimated at 1,000 GWh/year in the mid-1990s, with a technically feasible potential of 250 GWh/year. The construction of 9 further small- and mini-hydro plants, with sizes ranging from 250 kW to 3 MW, is currently ongoing.

Energy framework

National targets published in 2009 are to reach a 10% (4% excluding biomass) RE share in primary energy consumption by 2010.  Expert studies state that in 2030, a 6.5% share (excluding biomass) will be achieved. Tunisia signed the statute of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in April 2009. Energy policy with regard to renewable energies and energy efficiency is drafted mainly in the Four Year Programme for Energy Management 2008 – 2011. Expected consequences of this strategy include: a reduction of the subsidies granted by the state to the energy sector (in 2007, Egypt and Tunisia announced a plan to phase out energy subsidies), a reduction of CO2 emissions, and future profits from the Clean Development Mechanisms.In 2008, Tunisia’s National Agency for Energy Conservation released the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Plan. Besides contributing to the above mentioned 10% target, this program is expected to result in a 20% reduction of energy demand by 2011.The main renewable capacity developments are expected to be 180 MW of wind energy, by 2011. The government further aims to increase the installed PV energy capacity to 740.000 m2 in 2011. Currently, about 300.000 m2 of PV panels have been installed. Large wind projects are currently being developed, or are in the application process. EE is recognised as important, and is being addressed in energy policies. Public interventions via financial support from the state and the mobilisation of international financial resources have been decisive in the development of energy conservation in Tunisia.Law No. 2004-72 on the rational use of energy defines the sensible use of energy as a national priority, and as the most important element of an effective policy for sustainable development.The law states three principal goals: energy saving, the promotion of renewable energy sources, and the substitution of forms of energy currently used for renewable/sustainable options, wherever this offers technical, economic and ecological benefits.Since 2005, and with the adoption of above mentioned law and the creation of a national energy fund (subject to the Law N° 2005-106), Tunisia has set the political framework to increase energy efficiency and develop renewable energy sources.De-carbonisation of the energy sector and the de-coupling of economic growth and GHG emissions have occurred.Under the 2008 Renewable Energy Plan, a major effort was planned to develop renewable energy applications as a means for rural electrification, and for use in the agricultural sector. The specific objectives that were defined are as follows:- Installation of 63 pumping stations and water desalination,- Installation of 200 water pumping stations for irrigation systems by hybrid,- Equipment of 200 farms with biogas units for domestic use,- Installation of two industrial units connected to the network for the combined heat and power from biogas.Specifically for rural electrification:- Electrification of 1,000 rural households by hybrid systems,- Electrification of 1,700 rural households by PV systems,- Electrification of 100 farms and tourist centers by hybrid systems.The 2010 Energy Efficiency and Biomass Project, in collaboration with the World Bank, seeks to develop biomass energy sources as an alternative to fossil fuels in the country, through:(i) the promotion of energy efficiency/cogeneration through facilitation to disbursement of existing WB EE/Cogeneration credit line to commercial banks, and(ii) the development of biomass potential with implementation of a pilot project and capacity-building activities through technical assistance, direct investment funding and capacity building,Decree 2009-262 establishes financial incentives with a range of options for the introduction of renewable energy in rural and agricultural facilities. Grants are paid to the supplier of the equipment after installation. For electricity generation in agriculture, a grant of 40% of the investment cost, with a maximum project cost of 20,000 TND, is available for lighting and water pumping in rural areas when make use of solar or wind energy. Financial assistance is available for biogas through a grant of 40% of the investment cost, also with a 20,000 TND project ceiling, for the production of biogas in farms, and 20% subsidy of the investment cost with a ceiling of 100,000 TND is offered for combined heat and electricity from biogas plants. For solar buildings, a subsidy of 30% of the investment is offered with a maximum of 3,000 TND/kW and 15,000 TND/house.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.

  • Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Switzerland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte is an establishment of reflection, research and practice of industrial ecology. The Institute has an engineering division and an expertise cluster, which enables the Institute to identify new technologies linked to industrial ecology and to advise through a specific methodology adapted to local contexts. The project managers work on the practical execution of mandates and on the implementation of the industrial ecology with a particular attention to Switzerland and developing countries.