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Timor-Leste

Official Name:
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Luis dos Santos Belo
Phone:
+670 333-1118
Emails:
alubelo78@gmail.com

Energy profile

Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The power system in Timor-Leste is small and fragmented, and is mainly based on small and medium diesel power plants. The installed capacity in Dili, the capital, is 19 MW, whilst in the rest of the country; the capacity is roughly 16 MW. Another 10 MW is installed by large consumers as their sole supply or as backup. Diesel is the primary fuel source for power generation. The electrification is overwhelmingly concentrated in urban areas, with the electrification rate being 88% in urban areas and 19% in rural areas.In 2008, 85% of all power generated was supplied to Dili, and a 24-hour electricity supply only exists in Dili and Baucau, although there is a high rate of outages, particularly in the evening. Installed meters in both cities have in most cases been bypassed, leading to a substantial rate of electricity theft, and a low coverage of cost repayment. Based on figures from the Population Census of 2004, and of connectivity to grid-based electricity supply, it is estimated that in 2008, at least 185,000 households had no access to electricity, except through the use of batteries. The electricity supply of rural Timor-Leste now consists of 58 isolated grids (11 on a district level and 47 on the sub-district or village level), all equipped with diesel generators, but with some being inoperative, due to the lack of maintenance or fuel, or due to vandalism. For lighting, the rural population relies mainly on kerosene, plant oils and batteries.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyWith an average solar insolation throughout the year of 6 kWh/m2/day, East Timor is ideally suited to solar PV applications. Installation of between 10,000 and 50,000 PV systems is likely to be required for households that will not be connected to the national distribution network or microgrids within the next 15 years.  A significant number of small solar power systems were distributed as part of an Indonesian programme during the 1990s, and since 2002, with financial and technical support from various Ministries of Timor Leste, and from numerous NGOs and charities, the number of power systems has increased. Many of those systems show functional failures, with no schemes in place that provide financial and technical capacities for long-term maintenance and spare parts. The possibility of 50W solar home system dissemination has also been proposed, via the UNDP, although no progress has been made in this area currently.Wind energyWind power is a viable option for East Timor, with high coastal wind speeds indicating a good potential for power generation from wind energy. In 2007, a volunteer group from the Australian NGO ATA (Alternative Energy Association) installed two wind power generation systems in the country, for rural electrification purposes. A wind resource map was also produced for the country in 2008 by Portuguese firm MEGAJOULE.HydropowerA recent estimate indicates that there is a significant potential for the installation of medium-sized hydropower in the capacity range of 75 to 95 MW (based on feasibility study carried out in six sites by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation). Tmor-Leste started a programme to install hydro power plants with the construction of the Loihuno Power Plant, which was inaugurated in June 2009. This power plant produces 12 kilowatts per day, supplying 140 families. Another hydro power plant is under construction in Ainaro with a capacity of 28 kilowatts per day, sufficient to supply 230 families.The UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) lacks the further analysis in terms of the suitability and feasibility of small, mini, and micro-hydro power to produce electricity, given the topographic features of the country, to invest in any new hydropower infrastructure.Biomass energyThe majority of rural energy consumption in East Timor is still provided by traditional biomass fuels, leading to considerable deforestation. However, plans are in place to utilise biomass, along with other renewable energy sources, in the development of renewable power generation capacity in the country. 78 MW of biomass, biogas and waste-to-energy projects are being planned under the government's new energy strategy.Biogas energyA feasibility study by the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) and Hivos concludes that biogas would be one of the best solutions for cooking and lighting to those households who have sufficient cattle dung available in the yard. While about 12,000 biogas plants are technically feasible based on the sufficiency of manure and availability of water, collection of dung from these animals are rather difficult due to the free grazing practices and the difficulty of accessing water in many places. In addition, as rural households are not in a position to invest on biogas, there is a need to establish micro credit system in place. Geothermal energySignificant geothermal potential has been identified in East Timor, comparable to that of Australia or the United States at the same depth, 10km. The possibility of centralised geothermal power generation has been investigated, although no progress has currently been made in the field. 

Energy framework

There is no comprehensive national energy policy to guide the development of the overall energy sector, although the current power sector development plan is a move towards this direction.  The government has established four key principles to guide the development of the power sector. The first is that a sound administrative, legal, and regulatory framework for the power industry should be established. The second is that the vast majority of the population should have access to electricity. The third is that imported diesel fuel, currently the main fuel for power generation, should be replaced with domestic sources of energy. The fourth is that consumers should pay for the electricity services that they receive, and that certain groups of consumers may require targeted subsidies.Renewable energy is a priority in the 2008–2012 Development Plan. A renewable energy assessment for preparation and formulation of energy policy was undertaken by the State Secretariat for Energy Policy (SSEP) in January 2008, and a proposal for renewable energy development in rural areas is being formulated. The SSEP has been undertaking an integrated rural energy development program in various locations since 2005, covering projects of solar power, biogas, mini-hydropower, and efficient cooking stoves. The 2008 SSEP Development Program covers research, maps, and databases on reserves and on potential and renewable energy sources; the establishment of pilot biogas project plants; the reform of EDTL and the reduction of imported fuel dependency; construction and monitoring of the hydro-power plants in Iralalaro and Ainaro; and the promotion of renewable and alternative energy.The comprehensive study of the country’s renewable power potential identified more than 50 grid-connected renewable energy projects capable of producing 450 MW of capacity. This includes 351 MW of hydropower and 81 MW of potential wind projects. Government is also implementing small-scale initiatives in remote locations including (i) community biogas schemes; (ii) biofuel trials using Jatropha Curcas; (iii) 10-20 kW scale hydropower plants; and (iv) solar home systems.A special plan for energy development in rural areas has recently been formulated by the UNDP and the government of Timor-Leste.  It features an ambitious program for energy efficiency and renewable energy development.A Rural Electrification Masterplan is under development with support from the Energy Sector Management Assistance and the Asia Alternative Program respectively, as well as the Trust Fund for Timor-Leste.The biofuel production was introduced in 2008, with the creation of more than 150 hectares of plantations spread throughout the national territory. The secretariat of State for Energy Policy intends to improve the quality and to expand the production in 2011. As part of the renewable and alternative energies dynamization project, the Government has an agro-energetic plan, which includes two components, the cultivation of oilseed plants and the installation of distilleries, and the pilot projects have started.Timor-Leste ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 10 October 2006 and the Kyoto Protocol on 14 October 2008.

Source
Static Source:
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    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

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    Relation to CTCN:
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