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Eswatini

Official Name:
Kingdom of Eswatini

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Bafana Simelane
Phone:
+268 2404 6162 
Emails:
bafanasim@gmail.com

Energy profile

Swaziland (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

There is an inadequate electricity supply. The overall electrification rate is approximately 27%. It is estimated that 40% of urban areas and 4% of rural areas are electrified.One 400 kV transmission line crosses through Swaziland, and connects to the network at the recently-completed Edwaleni II substation. Country-scale transmission occurs via a 132 kV grid, with 66 kV lines. 

Renewable energy potential

Solar EnergySwaziland's solar regime is not well documented and it is necessary to collect sufficient and reliable data in order to map out the resource. However, indications from SADC maps, satellite images, and hourly sunshine data indicate that the annual averages could lie between 4 to 6 kWh/m2/day. A program to install solar water heaters in public institutions as an energy efficiency measure is also underway.HydropowerIt is estimated that Swaziland has a gross theoretical hydropower potential of approximately 3800 GWh/year, with a potential installed capacity of 200 MW. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy established a database on the potential of developing mini-micro hydropower electricity schemes.  The target was to pin point sites around the country where appropriate river basins exist, which could be used to generate electricity and help quantify the cost of  establishing new electricity schemes.  A report was produced from the study and 35 sites were identified.  The capacity of the schemes identified ranged between 0.032MW to 1.525MW.Biomass EnergyTotal forestry cover in the country is estimated at 625,400 hectares, with 463,000 hectares of this being indigenous forest. The harvesting of indigenous wood fuels is not managed. Biofuels are also being considered for the country, with a proposed 10% mix of anhydrous ethanol in transport fuel. The Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation is to produce the ethanol. A public awareness campaign on the benefits of biofuels is also included in the considerations. In 2007, approximately 1.8 million tonnes of bagasse were produced from the country’s sugar industry, 80% of which was used for industrial process, heating and the remainder for electricity generation.Wind EnergyWind speed measurements are continuing in the country, with preliminary results indicating a mean average wind speed of 4 m/s across the country, suggesting a moderate potential for wind energy use. Wind pumps have previously been used and are deemed to hold the greatest potential. Micro wind turbines of less than 100 kW also hold potential. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy is working in close collaboration with the National Meteorological Service, to determine whether there is any realistic potential for effective utilisation of solar and wind energy in the country, including long-term measurements on the Lubombo Plateau and a movable monitoring station for other areas of the country.Geothermal EnergyNo study has yet been conducted into the geothermal potential of Swaziland, although hot springs are known to exist in the country. 

Energy framework

The legal energy policy and planning framework in Swaziland is controlled solely by the government via the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy. They support the position that investment in energy and industrial development in a sustainable manner can eradicate poverty in the country. The Ministry also takes the lead role in oil sector management.The Government has stated clearly that rural electrification will continue to be a priority and efforts in that regard shall be led by the State. Energy is widely seen as a driver to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main energy policy document is the National Energy Policy 2002, which is still in effect. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy is responsible for overall project planning under the policy, and co-ordinates with the National Development Strategy Unit to ensure the fullest benefit from its programs.The Electricity Act of 1963 was replaced in 2007 by both the new Electricity Act and the Swaziland Electricity Company Act. This created a regulatory authority for the electricity sector and the structural reformation of the national utility. The Electricity Act created the framework for independent power providers to enter the electricity sector, with licensing provided by the new regulatory authority; however uptake has been limited. 

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.

  • Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht-Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH (HZG) is one of 18 members of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres Germany's largest science organization. One of HZG's scientific organizational entities is the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), a think tank for innovations in the field of climate services.