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Syria

Official Name:
Syrian Arab Republic
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Ammar Abbas
Position:
Director of the Minister's Office
Phone:
+963 11 231 8682
Emails:
int.coop@mola.gov.sy, mammarabbas@gmail.com, ibraheemalallan@yahoo.com, yarahazzouri@gmail.com

Energy profile

Syria (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Syria is working to meet its domestic need for electricity, with 1000 MW of capacity under construction as of mid-2009.Approximately 90% of the population has access to electricity. Syria’s power grid is linked up with those of several neighbouring countries, including Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyWith an average horizontal irradiance of 6.5 kWh/m2/day, Syria is well-placed to utilise solar energy.  The yearly average solar radiation in Syria is 1825kWh/m2 and the land surface area is 185,180 km2, indicating the total available solar energy of about 1400 times the total energy consumption in 2007.  Solar water distillation is of particular interest to the arid country. The “renewables master plan” is projected to provide 250MW of photovoltaic power and 1 Mtoe per annum of solar heat by 2030.Wind energySyria's renewables master plan projects 1000-1500MW of wind energy by 2030. The country has 4.9 hours of full-load wind on average per day, and is hence well-placed to utilise the resource. Danish wind power company Vestas signed a partnership with Marafeq, a company comprised of Syrian and Kuwaiti holding groups, to construct two wind power plants in May 2010. These plants will be from 50 MW to 100 MW, and will be situated south of the capital, Damascus.Geothermal energySyria has no thermal waters or aquifers, and hence geothermal potential in the country is negligible.HydropowerSyria's hydroelectric facilities are currently operating at about one-third of their full potential, supplying less than 8 percent of the country's electricity instead of meeting nearly a quarter of the nation's needs, with one of the major reasons being a fall in water levels on the Euphrates River. Hydroelectricity is expected to account for 4% of the total electrical power output in 2010 and less than 3% in 2020, due to the expected reduction in hydro resources, less water flow, and the expected increase in total energy demand in the future.Biomass/BiofuelsArboreal and animal residue sources could provide an estimated 2000MWh annually.Former Oil Minister Mtanius Habib suggests using gas instead of diesel or gasoline, noting that gas is less costly than oil, and the government should think seriously of importing cars running by CNG or hydrogen. He does not rule out the possibility of using alcohol as fuel for cars like Brazil and other Latin American countries.

Energy framework

Renewables has been part of overall energy plan since 2002, when the government called for renewable sources to make up 4.3% of the country’s total primary energy supply by 2011, a target that now looks unlikely to be met.The 11th Five-Year Plan 2011-2015 includes the use of RE sources by constructing generation plants as a key part.A UNDP project on Supply-side Efficiency and Energy Conservation and Planning was implemented between 1999 and 2005. The project contained five main components targeting demand side energy efficiency and supply side energy efficiency and resulted in the establishment of the National Energy Research Centre.In 2002 the Syrian Ministry of Electricity launched, in collaboration with the UN DESA, the Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP). Objectives of the REMP include:Increasing the share of RES in the power mix ,Establishing institutions and conducting surveys that will aid the uptake of RES,Achieving an estimated 1012 ktoe of renewable energy production by 2011.The Law on Energy Conservation was enacted by the Ministry of Electricity in 2009 to fulfill the sustainable development requirements of the country, disseminate energy conservation concepts, energy efficiency actions, improve energy saving and deploy various renewable energy applications. Through this law, the relevant institutions shall be committed to energy conservation and efficiency practices, use renewable energies in all sectors of their activities and adopt high energy- efficiency equipments. They must also create their own Energy Conservation Units meant to assess, audit and monitor the implementation of previously stated improvements. The law also entitles the National Energy Research Centre (NERC), created in 2003 to foster energy efficiency and renewable energy deployment, with further responsibilities.The Master Plan for Energy efficiency and Renewable Energies (MEERE), an updated renewable energy plan, will operate as a guide until 2030 and includes targets set for five-year periods beginning in 2010. The plan is being developed in partnership with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). GTZ is working with the National Energy Research Council (NERC), an arm of the Ministry of Energy. Although the MEERE has not been released, the targets will be to produce 1000-1500 MW of wind power, 250 MW of biomass-based plant power, 250 MW of photovoltaic plant power and 1m tonnes of oil equivalent solar power per year. In addition, the five-year plan commits the NERC to investing some USD8m in RE projects.The Ministry of Electricity and the Planning and International Cooperation Commission signed the project document of Energy Efficiency Code Project with the UNDP in January 2011. The project objective is to reduce CO2 emissions resulted from the energy sector in Syria by reducing energy demand in the building sector through preparing a new performance-based code of energy efficiency, including minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), energy-labeling of the new buildings, standards specified for EE materials, capacity building of principal stakeholders, and an appropriate compliance regime to ensure that these new requirements will be effectively implemented.Syria is involved in the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the Cairo-based regional think tank dedicated to the promotion of RE and EE, created in 2008, Regional Centre for Renewable Energies and Energy efficiency (RCREEE, www.rcreee.org/), as a founding member.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.