Connecting countries to climate technology solutions
English Arabic Chinese (Simplified) French Russian Spanish Yoruba

Rwanda

Official Name:
Republic of Rwanda

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Name:
Faustin Munyazikwiye
Position:
Director of Climate Change and International Obligations
Emails:
fmunyazikwiye@rema.gov.rw

Energy profile

Rwanda (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

In 2009, approximately 7% of the population had access to electricity, in total. Of the 90% of the population who live in rural areas, only 1% had access to electricity.Grid extension has been extremely limited, and economically justified only to meet rural industrial loads and emerging population clusters. The electricity grid consists of 3,300 km of 110 kV, 70 kV, 30 kV and 15 kV lines, with the primary concentration of grid connections running from the West to the North of the country.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energy Average horizontal irradiation is 5.5 kWh/ m2/day. Rwanda is also home to the largest single solar installation in Africa - the Kigali Solair plant- which generates 250 kW and feeds into the national electricity grid. The plant was funded by the German municipal power company Stadtwerke Mainz, and installed by Juwi in 2008.Wind energy The Ministry of Energy recently commissioned a feasibility study to determine the wind power capacity of Rwanda. This National Wind Atlas is being developed with the help of the Belgian government. Wind energy is currently exploited only in decentralised off-grid applications.Biomass energy An estimated 2.3 million tons of wood fuel are consumed in the country annually. The Rwanda Energy Management Authority (REMA) estimates that Rwanda has a deficit of 4 million cubic metres of wood fuel, due to extensive deforestation, and over-reliance on biomass for heating and light in rural areas. Also, as the majority of rural biomass is foraged, market mechanisms to improve the quality of fuel will be slow to take effect. Fuel-wood caps are to be imposed in several districts of the country to combat this. Aforestation measures, accompanied by a concurrent reduction in biomass consumption, aim to increase the forested area of the country to 23.5% by 2012. The country also has significant peat reserves, estimated at 155 million tonnes in 2008. GIZ are supporting the development of the National Biogas Development Program, which aims to install upwards of 15,000 biogas digesters for schools and farming households, to provide biogas for cooking and lighting, and reduce dependence on fuel-wood. Plans have also been put in place to increase national annual biodiesel production to 16 million litres, and install an additional 1 MW of biogas-fired power capacity.Geothermal energy Potential exists for between 170 – 320 MW of geothermal power generation, due to the country's proximity to the geothermal resource of the Great Rift Valley. Studies have indicated thermal waters with temperatures of up to 150ºC.Hydropower Hydropower potential in the country is estimated to be 500 MW, with only 72 MW having been exploited.The country has substantial hydroelectric resources, as well as natural gas deposits under Lake Kivu, which could make Rwanda self-sufficient in electricity, or even a net exporter. But the development of natural gas power plants, or new dam construction, requires both time and investment. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Infrastructure is financing 11 hydropower plants with installed capacities from 100 kW to 9.5 MW. GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, formerly GTZ) are also providing support to MININFRA for the promotion of SMEs in the small-hydro sector. Three companies have currently commissioned small-hydro projects, with a combined capacity of 755 kW, with a further 3.6 MW under consideration from 10 other projects. By 2015, the Government hopes to have promoted an additional 45 MW of small-hydro capacity in the country.

Energy framework

Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS)The EDPRS covers the period 2008-2012, and is the medium-term framework for achieving the country’s long term development aspirations as embodied in the Rwanda Vision 2020, and the intermediate targets of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Energy Sector Strategy has been developed to support sustained growth in the economy, and raise the standard of living for the Rwandan people by improving access to modern forms of energy at the household level. Objectives include the grid-electrification of 16% of the populace, as well as the provision of reliable electricity supply, through either on- or off-grid measures, to 100% of health centres and 50% of schools. Other objectives include a revision of the currently-outdated tariff structure to better reflect costs, and the establishment of a favourable legal and institutional framework for increased private sector participation. New laws for the electricity and gas sectors are currently being discussed in Parliament.National Energy Policy 2008The Energy Policy for Rwanda which was updated in November 2008 laid down the Government’s commitment to the development and utilisation of renewable energy resources and technologies and energy efficiency promotion. National Energy Strategy (2008-2020)The principal objective of the energy sector is to contribute to accelerated sustainable socio-economic development. A number of objectives for the development of renewable energy and energy efficiency are included in the strategy. These include; the further diversification of energy sources, including exploitation of the country’s geothermal potential and the increased use of solar water heaters; the increased use of CFLs in households and businesses to reduce energy consumption, energy auditing for industries, and information campaigns on good energy management practices.Government policy to promote rural electricity access is primarily based on the extension of the transmission and distribution network, operated by the EWSA. However, where customers are not centralised enough for economic grid extension, solar PV, generators or hydropower may be offered through private suppliers. The Electricity Access Roll-out Program (EARP), jointly-operated by the EWSA and MININFRA (and supported by a number of development partners, including the ADB, the Belgian Government, the JICA and the World Bank), is the implementing program for grid and off-grid electricity access improvements, as set out in the EDPRS.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.

  • Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht-Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH (HZG) is one of 18 members of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres Germany's largest science organization. One of HZG's scientific organizational entities is the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), a think tank for innovations in the field of climate services.