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Panama

Official Name:
Republic of Panama

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Name:
Mr. Emilio Sempris
Position:
Subadministrator General
Phone:
+507 500 0803
Emails:
esempris@miambeinte.gob.pa

Energy profile

Panama (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

There is a great potential for growth in the Panamanian electric power sector.  20% of Panamanians still do not have access to electricity, especially in the rural areas.  Panama is interconnected with the Central American electricity schemes through Costa Rica.Following the sector's privatization, Panama went from being a net importer of electricity to a net exporter. In July 2006, the Sistema de Interconexión Eléctrica Centroamericano – SIEPAC (Central America Electrical Interconnection System) started to be expanded in order to create a wholesale electricity market to bring down the cost of energy and enhance the reliability of the Central American electricity grid.  In early 2007, a project for electricity interconnection between Colombia and Panama was under consideration.

Renewable energy potential

The share of hydropower and non-conventional renewable generation in Panama’s total output has remained at relatively high levels due exclusively to the country’s significant hydropower capacity. Panama does not yet have non-conventional renewable generation in place, due to some structural biases that have favoured fossil generation.Solar energyWith an average horizontal irradiance of 5.0-5.5 kWh/m2/d, Panama has good potential for solar energy uptake. No large-scale operations with the technology have begun yet, although distributed small solar systems are being investigated as a solution to rural electrification.Wind energyPanama has proven, unexploited wind resources. Two companies are currently developing wind fields in Panama, one of which will be used to power the community of Los Pozos, the first 100% renewables-powered settlement in the country.HydropowerThere is a large potential for hydroelectric power in the country, and a law has been proposed to promote mini-hydroelectric projects as a way to reduce oil imports required by thermal plants.  However, Panama’s ability to continue to expand its hydropower capacity may face greater opposition in the future due to:Community opposition to hydropower projects. As elsewhere in the region, large-scale hydropower projects have encountered considerable local opposition.  Particularly, there has been considerable opposition to the concentration of hydropower development occurring in the province of Chiriquí in western Panama. Opponents of the projects include indigenous communities from the region.Competitive pressures. The spot market in Panama prices transactions involving energy based on variable cost or short-run marginal cost, with the value for hydropower dependent on values calculated by the Centro Nacional de DespachoTransmission limitations. Panama’s transmission network is still relatively weak in terms of capacity to deliver power from the western and eastern extremities of the country toward the centre.Failure of tendering processes. During the middle part of the decade (2002–2008), the public tenders issued by the distribution companies for new hydropower generation capacity were not well received. The primary reason for the lack of interest was that the contracts were too short to ensure an adequate return, but other conditions, such as maximum prices, were also not acceptable.Biomass energy/BiofuelsPanama has shown interest in biofuels technologies, particularly as an export for US consumption. In a 2007 meeting, the President declared the country's interest in performing extensive biofuels research.Geothermal energyPanama holds a potential 400 MW of geothermal resource. However, movement to exploit this resource is slow, with private-sector companies in the country being more interested in wind power, and the Government focusing on hydro-electricity.

Energy framework

National Energy Plan 2009–2023The National Energy Plan released by the National Energy Secretariat in 2009 established as a generation plan the installation of an additional 1299.80 MW by 2023 via the following energy sources:706.30 MW from hydropower473.50 MW from thermal power120 MW from wind power.The National Energy Plan also recognized the possibility of a positive contribution from efficient energy use as an energy-planning alternative. It proposed demand-side energy planning to reduce energy requirements without compromising need or neglecting environmental issues. A draft was expected in late 2010, and it would address the need to achieve improvements in efficiency in buildings and appliances as well as promote public education.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Tambourine Innovation Ventures Inc.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Incorporated in 2015, Tambourine Innovation Ventures (TIV) is an innovation advisory and venture development firm that provides a full suite of services and solutions to the challenges and needs generated by the increasing interest and activity globally in the areas of climate change adaptation/mitigation, innovation, technology transfer and venture finance. TIV founders and consultants bring more than three decades of experience in assisting the developing countries access innovative technologies from the industrialized countries and grow technology ventures.

  • Sud Austral Consulting SpA

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Chile
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Sud-Austral Consulting S.p.A.is a consulting company created through individual and collective experience of its members, after recurring mutual collaboration for several years it was consolidated in early 2012 in the creation of a consulting entity formally established. The experience of professionals and technicians of Sud-Austral Consulting S.p.A.has resulted in consulting services in projects developed by governments, public and private institutions, both in Chile, South and Central America.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.