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Nigeria

Official Name:
Federal Republic of Nigeria

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Chukwuemeka Okebugwu
Phone:
+234 80 6442 6144
Emails:
chuksokebugwu@yahoo.com

Energy profile

Nigeria (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Only about 40% of the households in Nigeria have access to the public utility supply and only 46% have access to electricity.  Only 2% of the rural households in Nigeria have access to electricity either by rural electrification actions initiated by the government or self-generation by private individuals (Y.S. Mohammed et al, 2013)

Renewable energy potential

Solar

Nigeria lies within a high sunshine belt and thus has enormous solar energy potentials. Solar radiation is fairly well distributed with average solar radiation of about 19.8 MJm –2 day-1 and average sunshine hours of 6hrs per day. If solar collectors or modules were used to cover 1% of Nigeria’s land area, it is possible to generate 1850 x103 GWh of solar electricity per year; this is over one hundred times the current grid electricity consumption level in the country.

Wind Energy

Wind energy is available at annual average speeds of about 2.0 m/s at the coastal region and 4.0 m/s at the far northern region of the country. With an air density of 1.1 kg/m3, the wind energy intensity perpendicular to the wind direction ranges between 4.4 W/ m2 at the coastal areas and 35.2 W/ m2 at the far northern region.

Biomass & Biogas

The biomass resources of Nigeria can be identified as crops, forage grasses and shrubs, animal wastes and waste arising from forestry, agriculture, municipal and industrial activities, as well as, aquatic biomass. Crops such Sweet sorghum, maize, Sugarcane were the most promising feedstock for biofuel production. It has been estimated that Nigeria produces about 227,500 tons of fresh animal waste daily. Since 1 kg of fresh animal waste produces about 0.03 m3 biogas, then Nigeria can potentially produce about 6.8 million m3 of biogas every day from animal waste only. Although biogas technology is not common in Nigeria, various research works on the technology and policy aspects of biogas production has been carried by various scientists in the country.

Hydro

The country is reasonably endowed with large rivers and some few natural falls. Small rivers and streams also exist within the present split of the country into eleven River Basin Authorities, some of which maintain minimum discharges all the year round. In a study carried out in twelve states and four  river basins, over 278 unexploited small hydropower (SHP) sites with total potentials of 734.3 MW were identified. However, SHP potential sites exist in virtually all parts of Nigeria with an estimated total capacity of 3,500 MW. They indicate that Nigeria possesses potential renewable source of energy along her numerous river systems, a total of 70 micro dams, 126 mini dam and 86 small sites have been identified.The total technically exploitable hydropower potential based on the country’s river system is conservatively estimated to be about 11,000 MW of which only 19% is currently being tapped or developed. These rivers, waterfalls and streams with high potentials for hydropower, if properly harnessed will lead to decentralized use and provide the most affordable and accessible option to off-grid electricity services especially to the rural communities.

Energy framework

The development of RE technologies in Nigeria has been slow. New measures are aimed to boost growth in the RE sector (legislative framework, licensing arrangements for private-sector operators, Feed-in Tariffs and clarifying market rules for RE services and products). Rural electrification programs are to take RE sources into full account. Liberalization has led to private sector participation in the generation sector, and a number of operational IPPs in the country today. Establishment of off-grid generation/distribution plants is encouraged. Means include:

  • moratorium on import duties for renewable energy technologies
  • design of further tax credits, capital incentives and preferential loan opportunities for renewable energy projects
  • Feed-in Tariffs for solar energy, wind power and small-hydro (under development)

Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP)

The country’s Renewable Energy Master Plan was launched in 2006 and identifies considerable potential for generating solar, small and large hydro, biomass, biogas and wind energy across the country.Gradual movement from a fossil economy to one driven by an increasing share of renewable energy. Targets for renewable energy technologies by 2025:

  • Small-hydro: (600 MW in 2015) 2,000 MW
  • Solar PV: 500 MW
  • Biomass-based power plants: (50 MW in 2015) 400 MW
  • Wind: 40 MW
  • Electrification: (2005 level 42%, 60% in2015) 75%

National Integrated Power Project (NIPP)

Nigeria plans to increase generation from fossil fuel sources to more than 20,000 MW by 2020. The Nigerian government has set several targets to increase power generation over the past decade, but none of these targets have been met. The NIPP was initially established in 2004 by the Nigerian government as a plan to construct multiple natural gas-fired power plants using natural gas that was flared. Although progress has been slower than initially expected, some of the power plants are expected to come online in the short term. According to the August 2013 Roadmap, NIPP projects currently contribute more than 1,000 MW to the national grid capacity, and it is expected to reach 4,771 MW in 2015 when all planned units are expected to be completed and commissioned. A major source of capacity expansions is expected to come from Independent Power Projects (IPPs). IPPs currently contribute around 1,674 MW to the national grid capacity, and capacity from IPPs is expected to grow to about 14,000 MW by 2020, according to the August 2013 Roadmap. IPPs include power plants operated by IOCs.Nigeria plans to increase hydroelectricity generation capacity to 5,690 MW by 2020, quadrupling the capacity from the 2012 level. The country plans to increase hydroelectricity generation by upgrading current hydroelectricity plants and constructing new plants: Gurara II (360 MW), Zungeru (700 MW) and Mambilla (3,050 MW). In late 2013, the Nigerian government announced a $1.3 billion deal with China to build the 700-MW Zungeru hydropower project. The Export-Import Bank of China will cover 75% of the cost, while the Nigerian government will finance the remaining cost.

Energising Access to Sustainable Energy (EASE)

The programme aims to improve the enabling framework conditions for renewable energy and energy efficiency in Nigeria and, in particular, with a focus on the use of renewable energies by Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and households.The EASE programme will also address the massive deforestation and cutting of trees for fuel wood, which is the main energy source for the majority of the population, by planting more trees. Furthermore, Nigeria is the second largest gas flaring country, emitting some 40 million tons of CO2 each day. Through the promotion of reduced gas flaring, the EASE programme will contribute to resource conservation and help fight climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Some other activities to be carried out through the programme will include: design of energy assessment and strategies to increase access to energy, providing essential training on aspects such as norms, standards, and tariffs, or the development of business plans to demonstrate commercial viability of small-scale gas resources. The new programme will be run in partnership with the World Bank (which will contribute with over €4.6 million) and the GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) (with a contribution of €9 million).

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Tambourine Innovation Ventures Inc.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Incorporated in 2015, Tambourine Innovation Ventures (TIV) is an innovation advisory and venture development firm that provides a full suite of services and solutions to the challenges and needs generated by the increasing interest and activity globally in the areas of climate change adaptation/mitigation, innovation, technology transfer and venture finance. TIV founders and consultants bring more than three decades of experience in assisting the developing countries access innovative technologies from the industrialized countries and grow technology ventures.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.