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Myanmar

Official Name:
Republic of the Union of Myanmar

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Ms. Thin Thuzar Win
Position:
Deputy Director, Climate Change Division
Phone:
+95 67 431325
Emails:
climatechange.ecd@gmail.com

Energy profile

Union of Myanmar (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

According to the IEA, in 2006 no more than 11% of the population was connected to the electricity grid. That would leave over 45 million people without grid electrification.

Renewable energy potential

HydropowerThe hydropower potential of the country is estimated to be more than 100,000MW. Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise ("MEPE") under the Ministry of Electric Power has identified more than 200 potential hydropower sites throughout the country which has a total installed capacity of 38.000MW.Wind energyPotential wind energy of Myanmar is around 365.1 terrawatt hour per year. Due to expensive initial cost, wind energy is implemented only as an experimental and research phase.Solar energyMeasurements indicate that radiation intensity of more than 5 KWh/m2/day is available during the dry season but the use of solar energy is also at an initial stage.Geothermal energyMyanmar has abundant geothermal resources. A total of 93 geothermal locations have been identified throughout the country.Biogas energySince 1980 biogas generation is being implemented in order to substitute fuel wood scarcity in Central Myanmar region. In addition, Jatropha Curcas plants have been grown to use the oil as an alternative fuel, and 7 million acres will be planted by 2011. The programme to produce Bio-ethernol and Bio-diesel as alternative fuel in the transport sector is also ongoing.  

Energy framework

Some apparently still relevant laws and policies are:Myanmar Electricity Law (1984)Electricity Act 1948 (as amended in 1967)Electricity Rules (1985)The Petroleum Act (1934) andPetroleum Rules of 1937 (as amended in 1946)National Environment Policy (1994).The Energy Policy is stated as: to maintain the status of energy dependence; to promote wider use of new and renewable sources of energy; to promote energy efficiency and conservation; and to promote use of alternative fuels in household.Myanmar has formulated and adopted Myanmar Agenda 21, published by the National Commission for Environmental Affairs (NCEA), with the general aim of facilitating the integration of environmental and sustainable development consideration.In 2009, the country has launched the National Sustainable Development Strategies (NSDS), which covers three main areas of Social, Economic and Environmental issues and focuses national effort to achieve sustainable development. Myanmar joined Bangladesh India Myanmar Sri Lanka Thailand-Economic Cooperation (BIMST-EC) in 1997.Myanmar signed an agreement on the established of the ASEAN Centre for Energy in 1998 together with eight other ASEAN countries. PROMEEC (Promotion of Energy Efficiency and Conservation) is a programme coordinated on by ASEAN to facilitate capacity building and exchange of information between the ASEAN countries.Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) Economic Cooperation with six member countries was launched with the assistance of the Asian Development Bank in 1992. Its economic cooperation in energy sector includes: regional power interconnection & power trade arrangements; sub-regional strategy for the utilization of natural gas; and sub-regional strategy for cooperation in renewable energy. The Inter-Governmental Agreement on Regional Power Trade in the GMS was signed in 2002, and the Regional Power Trade Coordination Committee (RPTCC) was created in 2002 to coordinate, promote and implement regional power trading development.In 2005, Myanmar and Thailand signed an MOU on cooperation in renewable energy and energy saving sectors.The Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EE&C) goals submitted to the 5th East Asia Summit Energy Ministers Meeting, held on 20 September 2011 in Brunei Darussalam, state that the country uses TPES as the EE Indicator, and aims at 5% reduction by 2020 from 2005 level and 10% reduction by 2030 from 2005 level. However, the action plans submitted were from 2009 and not concrete. Government officials admit the lack of explicit energy efficiency and conservation laws but consider that some existing building regulation implicitly contribute energy efficiency and conservation. An energy efficiency and conservation master plan is under preparation. Barriers for energy efficiency are considered to be: weakness of follow up activities and initiatives to implement EE&C action; need for more training programme for EE&C; need for energy efficiency laws; need for a mechanism to get comprehensive, reliable, accurate energy consumption data of industries and buildings; need for provision of tax incentives programme to industries and building sector to implement EE&C measure; institutional constraints; and financial constraints.The currently low awareness of EE&C in Myanmar is due to subsidized energy pricing system.Myanmar ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 25 November 1994 and its Kyoto Protocol on 13 August 2003.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Tambourine Innovation Ventures Inc.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Incorporated in 2015, Tambourine Innovation Ventures (TIV) is an innovation advisory and venture development firm that provides a full suite of services and solutions to the challenges and needs generated by the increasing interest and activity globally in the areas of climate change adaptation/mitigation, innovation, technology transfer and venture finance. TIV founders and consultants bring more than three decades of experience in assisting the developing countries access innovative technologies from the industrialized countries and grow technology ventures.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.