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Lebanon

Official Name:
Republic of Lebanon
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Ms. Samar Malek
Position:
Acting Head of the Service of Environmental Technology
Phone:
+961 1 976 555 ext 434
Emails:
samar@moe.gov.lb, climatechange@moe.gov.lb

Energy profile

Lebanon (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Access to electricity across Lebanon stands at nearly 100%. The infrastructure is being expanded to meet increasing demand by building a 220 kV super grid, reinforcing the distribution network, providing new generating capacity, implementing administrative reforms and improving technical assistance. The EDL system is now interconnected with the Syrian system through two 220/400 kV overhead lines with an overall capacity of 400MW.EDL’s transmission network consists of many types of high voltage power linesl as 58 major power substations converting power from high voltage to medium voltage. In addition, the network includes more than 1 615 km (1336 km of overhead lines and 279km of underground cables) of various voltages used for transmission and distribution. The distribution network consists of substations converting power from medium to low voltage to deliver electrical power to every subscriber.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyWith the majority of towns and villages connected to the electricity grid, solar PV cannot compete with electricity supplied with the traditional oil-based methods. An exception exists for isolated remote applications such as transmission and relay towers. Due to abundant solar resources and the maturity of the solar thermal industry, Lebanon stands to benefit greatly from the utilization of solar water heating. Plans for the implementation of solar thermal collectors (STC) have been thoroughly studied. The CEDRO Project through UNDP has initiated a re-assessment of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), given the technological progress achieved in this field during the last decade, particularly since a report by ESCWA (UN) indicated that Lebanon has negligible potential in CSP due to the land, water, and low cloud cover requirements for CSP. The study is expected to be completed by the September 2011.Wind energyTwo wind turbines have been installed prior to 2006; but one of them was destroyed during the 2006 summer war. There was significant evidence to support the presence of strong sustained winds in various areas in Lebanon, specifically the north. This evidence was mainly based on the tree deformation index, which suggested speeds of 7-8 m/sec to be present in selected sites. The first version of ‘The National Wind Atlas for Lebanon’ was published in 2011 by the CEDRO project with the support of the UNDP and the Spanish government. Both onshore and offshore wind maps have been generated, and results are very positive – particularly for onshore wind farm prospects. The constrained potential for onshore wind power in Lebanon has been estimated to be equivalent to 6.1 GW, yet when particular parameters are altered and sensitivity analysis applied, the potential becomes 1.5 GW. This does not include, however, the constraints set by the Lebanese electricity network. Recently, the Government of Lebanon has commissioned the assessment of micro-wind turbines for power generation in 10 different locations.Biomass energyAlthough Lebanon has little forest cover, it has significant other sources of biomass, namely municipal solid waste (MSW). 400 tons of MSW produced on a daily basis could provide 30% of the electricity needs. Biogas generation from sewer and farm waste decomposition has the potential of offsetting 2.8% of the electric needs.BiofuelsAs yet, there are no programs to produce or promote biofuels.Hydropower Lebanon is famous for its waters in an otherwise water deficient region. Several hydropower plants have been installed and others are expected soon. However, the share of hydropower to the overall electricity generation is around 5%.Geothermal energy2 tentative sites have been identified. The first is in Sammaqiye, which was an active volcanic area a long time ago. The second site is off-shore of Tyre in Southern Lebanon where thermal vents have been discovered covering an area of 800m at a depth of 60m below sea level.

Energy framework

The Lebanese Association for Energy Saving and for the Environment (ALMEE, http://www.almee.org/) (a non-profit organisation), is dedicated to developing, increasing and promoting better management of energy, on a national level and in the Mediterranean basin as a whole. Their work encompasses the following fields:- Renewable energies: solar, wind, biomass, hydraulic, wood etc.,- Generation and exploitation of electrical energy,- Buildings: insulation, glazing, heating, air conditioning etc.,- Industrial processing, "co-generation" etc.,- Air conditioning and heating,- Heat-pumps and refrigeration.- Transportation- Energy and the environment.EU (SYNERGY program) Euro-Mediterranean Energy Policy Training Network project, to establish a training network extending to all Mediterranean Partners and providing specialized services, enhancing implementation of the Action Plan of Euro-Mediterranean Energy Forum 1998-2002. The ultimate success of the Network was judged upon the effectiveness of the dissemination of European energy policy know-how to the Mediterranean Partners as well as upon the adoption by them of common international practices in energy projects financing.EU (INCO) project, DISTRES (www.distres.eu): Promotion and Consolidation of all RTD Activities for Renewable Distributed Generation Technologies in the Mediterranean Region. The overall goal of the three year DISTRES project is to exchange and disseminate good practice in renewable energy sources and distributed generation (RES-DG) through research and analyses of Mediterranean needs. Since solar potential is abundant in the Mediterranean, the area of interest of DISTRES will be primarily solar (photovoltaic and/or solar thermal concentrating systems) from DG systems.A UNDP project, Lebanon-Cross-Sectoral Energy Efficiency and Removal of Barriers to ESCO Operation, between 2002 and 2011 aimed at establishing the Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation and Planning; providing necessary engineering and energy marketing services pertaining to energy conservation; and assisting the government in strengthening its policy aspects and increasing public awareness pertaining to energy planning and conservation issues.The Country Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Demonstration Project for the Recovery of Lebanon (CEDRO, www.cedro-undp.org/) was created in October 2007 in partnership with the Ministry of Energy and Water, the Ministry of Finance and the Council for Development and Reconstruction of the UNDP. The project is part of a larger UNDP programme to assist in the country’s recovery from the 2006 conflict with Israel. CEDRO has a mandate of five years until October 2012 and a budget of $9.73 million funded by the Lebanon Recovery Fund by means of a donation from Spain.The aim of CEDRO is to complement the national power sector reform strategy and to support the greening of Lebanon's recovery reconstruction and reform activities. The project focuses on activating end-use energy efficiency and renewable energy applications in public sector buildings and facilities across Lebanon on several levels:The first level involves the implementation of end-use energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) demonstration projects in approximately 80 public sector buildings and facilities across Lebanon;The second level involves the gearing of CEDRO projects towards assisting in alleviating barriers to increased penetration of RE and EE applications;The third level targets public awareness issues on climate change, energy consumption, and RE and EE applications;The fourth level increases the availability of validated data on energy consumption patterns, and RE and EE performance costs and benefits;The fifth level consists of supporting the formulation of a national sustainable energy strategy and action plan through a research and development program.To date, the major already accomplished or ongoing initiatives include the introduction of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), solar water heaters, EE measures in industry, street lighting programs, the development of standards and labels and the development of a number of energy related laws and financing mechanisms.The Policy Paper of the Electricity Sector was launched by the Ministry of Energy and Water in June 2010 as the national plan to upgrade the electricity sector in the country. The policy paper includes 10 strategic initiatives, three of them dedicated to energy efficiency and renewable energy. They include feed-in tariff and net-metering, the development of a National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP), the establishment of the National Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Action (NEEREA) as a national financing mechanism and to develop the ESCO (Energy Service Company) business dealing with energy audit applications. The Policy Paper has also set the targets to increase the share of RE to 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and to 12% by the year 2020, as well as to reduce energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013.The National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for Lebanon (NEEAP) 2011-2015 for the Electricity Sector was developed by the LCEC with the support by the EU-funded MED-ENEC project. The NEEAP was adopted by the Ministry of Electricity and Water in December 2010.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.