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Jordan

Official Name:
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Name:
Ms. Sara Qais Al Haleeq
Phone:
+962 6 5560113 ext. 188, +962 79 564 3935
Emails:
sara_alhaleeq@hotmail.com

Energy profile

Jordan (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Access to electricity across Jordan is 99%. The main generating stations are connected via 132 kV and 400 kV lines, which transmit to load centres in the country and the distribution network. The exports system consists of a 230 kV line with Syria, and a 400 kV line with Egypt.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyAn ambitious project to generate electricity from solar energy in a 30MW thermal power station is under study, together with the European consortium Pheobus. Average insolation across the country is 6.3 kWh/m2/day, indicating good potential. Solar energy is mainly used in Jordan for domestic solar water heating (about 30% of the houses); and 100 PV systems are used in remote areas throughout the country. A viability of solar PV study using a 5 MW grid-connected solar PV power plant found that the global solar radiation on horizontal surface varied between 1.51 and 2.46 MWh/m2/year with an overall mean value of 2.01 MWh/m2/year, with about 3311 sunshine hours annually. The annual electricity production of the proposed plant varied depending on the location between 6.886 and 11.919 GWh/year, with a mean value of 9.46 GWh/year. Taking into consideration of economic feasibility, Tafila and Karak are found to be the most suitable sites for the solar photovoltaic power plant’s development.Wind energyWind atlases show areas that have potential namely in the north, with medium annual wind speeds of 6.5 m/s, In the south the National Energy Research Centre (NERC) indicates that Al-Fujaja is the most promising site. Another study showed that the potential of wind energy is acceptable for most of the selected locations as the maximum wind speed for most selected sites is greater than 3m/s. Ras-Muneef gained the highest rank in wind energy potential followed by Aqaba and South-Azarq.Biomass energyBiomass has a low potential in Jordan, mainly due to the arid conditions in the country. It has been estimated that animal and solid wastes represent an energy potential of about 100 ktoe/year, but of rather difficult development potential due mainly to dispersion. An estimation of energy potential from solid waste from sheep, cows and hens and organic waste from olive mills indicated that the total heating value of these wastes was 6600 million MJ assuming an overall waste collection efficiency of 70%. This quantity is equivalent to 157 thousand tons of oil equivalent (toe), representing 84% of Jordan’s local crude oil and natural gas production. However, it only represents 2% of the total primary energy consumption of 7187 thousand toe. Considering the costs of collecting these wastes from scattered farms and olive mills in the country, decentralized collection and processing of these wastes for energy recovery is desirable.Jordan has adopted a special program for Bio-energy by which pre-feasibility studies for the utilization of Municipal Solid Wastes for electricity generation have been prepared since 1993, resulting in the biogas project of the Jordan Biogas Company (JBCO) with a capacity to produce up to 5 MW of electricity. The Jordan Biogas company (owned equally by CEGCO and Greater Amman Municipality) has continued to work on the organic waste Treatment at the Rusaifa waste land fill. The volume of the solid and liquid waste treated in 2007 reached around 5440 tons, and the amount of electricity generated was 9,494 MWh, the plant managed to prevent since it has been established 27,7 million m3 of methane gas.Geothermal energyStudies by the Natural Resources Authority have found medium- and low- grade geothermal waters along the Dead Sea rift. Many small geothermal resources are also in use in aquaculture. An updated assessment of geothermal energy showed that Jordan has enormous underground energy resources in many parts of the country in the form of thermal underground hot water (wells and thermal springs), having a temperature ranging from 20 °C to 62 °C. It was also found that the installed capacity of geothermal energy is 153.3 MWt and the annual energy supply potential is 1540 TJ/year in the form of domestic hot water for bathing and swimming, giving an overall capacity factor of 0.42. Possible future applications of geothermal energy were found to be absorption refrigeration to preserve fruit and vegetables or freeze fish and meat, as well as fish farming and greenhouse heating.HydropowerHydropower resources are two installed generation facilities with a combined capacity of 7 MW.

Energy framework

Jordan implemented a National Energy Efficiency Strategy for 2005-2020 in 2005. The strategy contains several renewable energy generation targets since 2007. It targets 7% of Jordan’s energy mix to come from renewable energy sources by 2015 and 10% by 2020. It also contains measures including income tax exemption, removal of oil and electricity price subsidies, grants and loans, tax reduction, appliance labelling, and energy audits.The Jordanian Government launched a gradual removal of subsidies for gasoline, diesel, fuel oil and kerosene in 2005. In February 2008, oil product prices were fully liberalised stimulating a market response on both improving energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy, and more importantly, supporting a broader reform to make the overall economy more efficient and attract foreign investment.The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Law 3 was enacted by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources in 2010 in order to provide the government with suitable tools to reach the National Energy Efficiency Strategy targets, including  the Jordan Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Fund (JREEEF). The Fund will be financed by national and international institutions, and be financially and administratively independent. The Fund provides renewable energy subsidies to privately owned and operated facilities, interest rate subsidies on commercial loans, a Public Equity Fund to support the deployment of private investment onto the sector, a renewable energy guarantee facility to ease credit access for energy efficiency and renewable energy project developers and research, and technical cooperation grants for targeted programmes and feasibility studies.A uniform electricity tariff system was introduced in 1984, using Long Run Marginal Cost (LRMC) to establish the rates that each customer class should be charged. The large industries get their supply directly from the 132 kV network. The maximum demand penalty is US$3.48/installed kW/ month and quantity charges are from US$0.0465 to 0.0682/consumed kWh.MEMR’s (the Ministry for Energy and Mineral Resources) policy objectives include promoting energy saving and demand side management strategies by:- Implementing economic pricing, e.g. by eliminating energy subsidies.- Developing indigenous energy resources by promoting exploration for fossil-fuel by cooperation with international oil companies and, harnessing indigenous RE sources by means of foreign capital.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.