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Ghana

Official Name:
Republic of Ghana

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Specialized agency
Name:
Mr. Joseph Amankwa Baffoe
Position:
Senior Programme Officer
Phone:
+233 26237 3698, +233 0266 2465
Emails:
jabaffoe@gmail.com

Energy profile

Ghana (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

While 72% of Ghana’s population has access to electricity, the Northern, upper East, and upper West regions have access rates of 44%, 30%, and 32%, respectively.The Ministry of Energy in 1989 instituted the National Electrification Scheme (NES) as Government’s principal policy to extend electricity to all parts of the country over a 30-year period from 1990-2020. 643 communities were connected to the national grid in 2012, bringing to the total of communities connected nationally to about 5,500 and a national average coverage of about 72% as of December 2012, just as in 2011 due to population growth catching up with the rate of electrification. All regional and district capitals have been connected to the national grid. According to the Ministry of Energy, over 3,000 communities earmarked for electrification since 2011 would continue. Also, funding arrangement had been secured for about 2,000 communities earmarked for electrification in 2013 and beyond.

Renewable energy potential

SolarThe solar resource is abundant in Ghana. The monthly average solar irradiation is between 4.4 and 5.6 kWh/m2/day, with sunshine duration of between 1,800 and 3,000 hours per annum. However, till recently, little was done to exploit this resource for grid-connected power generation. Solar power has considerable potential to serve households in un-electrified villages.VRA has just completed a small 2-megawatt-peak (MWp) solar photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected plant as a pilot project in Navrongo in the Northern Electricity Distribution Company (NEDCo) areas of operation, which should be commissioned later this year. Four sites in the environs of Kaleo (near Wa), Lawra, Jirapa, and Navrongo have been identified and acquired for a total of 10-MWp PV plants. VRA is seeking concessionary funding to develop the remaining 8 MWp.Wind EnergyGhana’s best wind resources are found primarily along narrow stretches of its eastern coastline. Along the coastline, the speeds (mostly 6–7 meters per second [m/s] at 50 m) are classified as “marginal” for wind generation. Nevertheless, grid-connected wind power is likely to be cheaper than grid-connected solar power. Clearly, it will be several years before the full extent to which Ghana’s wind resource is technically and financially viable for development on a large scale becomes clear. Yet, it is already evident that wind power is not likely to prove to be a substantial contributor to the power supply in the next decade.Biomass & biogasBiomass is Ghana‘s dominant energy resource in terms of its endowment and consumption. Approximately, about 20.8 million hectares of 23.8 million hectare land mass of Ghana is covered with biomass resources. Biomass fuels in Ghana mainly comprise of charcoal, plant residues and wood fuel. Wood fuel is the major form of biomass used as energy source for both domestic and commercial purposes in Ghana; about 90% of rural households depend on wood fuel and other biomass resources for domestic purposes (cooking, and heating, etc).Wood fuel is the dominant and cheapest fuel available on the Ghanaian market; the production, transportation and sale of wood fuels are all undertaken by the private sector. There is no official government pricing regulatory body responsible for setting the prices of wood fuels in Ghana; rather the pricing is dependent on the supply and demand conditions.These resources have not yet been developed for generating electricity in Ghana, and there are no projects in an advanced planning stage. Some developers are undertaking feasibility studies for biomass projects.HydroGhana has significant hydropower potential, and is already tapping this potential with its Akosombo, Kpong and Bui plants, which provide the majority of electricity in the country. Hydropower potential is estimated to be about 2,420 MW, and in addition to the large-scale Bui plant under construction, 21 additional hydro sites have been identified but not yet developed. Ghana is looking to diversify its power resources, as its reliance on hydroelectricity make it particularly vulnerable to drought.

Energy framework

The Government of Ghana has a national energy policy aimed at providing affordable access to electricity to all communities by 2020 and becoming a net exporter of electricity by 2015. This can be achieved by increasing the capacity of electricity generation (from 2,000 to 5,000 MW by 2015) as well as updating the necessary transmission and distribution infrastructure within the power sub-sector.The national renewable energy policy of Ghana is to increase the renewable energy components to 10% in the national energy mix by the year 2020. The renewable energy policy would be concentrate on three areas, namely solar and wind, alternative fuel for transportation and biomass pricing. The Government would institute measures to overcome the challenges in technology, market constraints and other institutional barriers inherent in investments in solar and wind. Further, the government would create a favorable regulatory and fiscal regimes as well as attractive pricing system to enhance investment in the sector.The National Electrification Scheme (NES) has been a largely successful government program initiated with donor assistance in 1989 with a goal of extending the grid throughout the country by 2020. To date, all district capitals are on the national grid, as are many communities along the high and medium tension power lines.With the stated goal of the NES, there is little room for decentralized energy sources such as solar home systems. In addition to the high cost of the systems, people in communities without grid power remain convinced that the grid will be extended to them soon and are not willing to pay substantially more for solar energy in the short term.It should be noted that, the cost of extending the grid to low-voltage points is estimated at $2,000-$3,000 per connection, a range which is comparable to the cost of a mid-sized solar electric system. This is in addition to the cost of medium and low voltage transmission lines. Under these circumstances, the NES has shut out a large sector of the market for photovoltaic systems. The subsidies enjoyed by users under the NES are also not available to RET users, who are forced to bear the full cost of their power systems in advance.The current environment heavily favours extension of the grid even to areas where it is not economically justified. The needs of such communities could be easily met with the same level of subsidy enjoyed by grid users if they were given the choice between solar, wind, micro-hydro and other sources. (Attachie and Amuzuvi, 2012)

Source
Static Source:
  • Capacity Building hub for Sustainable Energy

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    The capacity building hub collaborates with global stakeholders and institutions across the energy value chain, and leverages their mutual strengths to foster attainment of the ambitious goals. The hub undertakes a demand-driven approach to catalyze change. It is a special-purpose vehicle that facilitates - awareness generation/sensitization, knowledge assimilation and dissemination, design and delivery of programmes of change, and identification of research gaps.

  • Lighting a Billion Lives

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    Lighting a Billion Lives is a global initiative to facilitate clean energy access and the delivery of last mile energy services for basic and productive use. The initiative enables energy poor communities to transition from traditional and inefficient energy sources to modern, more efficient and sustainable energy solutions. The initiative accelerates market development for clean energy technologies through knowledge sharing, capacity building and market seeding.

  • GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) is a rating tool that helps people assesses the performance of their building against certain nationally acceptable benchmarks. It evaluates the environmental performance of a building holistically over its entire life cycle, thereby providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a ‘green building’. The rating system, based on accepted energy and environmental principles, seeks to strike a balance between the established practices and emerging concepts, both national and international.

  • Specialized Library on Climate Change

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    The Specialized Library on Climate Change houses wide array of resources on climate change related issues, both in print and electronic form. The website provides information about all the resources and services offered by the library. The library catalogue of print and electronic resources and database of literature abstracts can be accessed on-line. Current awareness services like listing of new arrivals and compilation of latest news and events are also provided on-line.

  • ENVIS Centre on Renewable Energy and Environment

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    The major objectives of the ENVIS Centre are collection and dissemination of information in order to support and promote research, development and innovation among researcher, policy makers, academics and other stakeholders. The Centre is actively engaged in data gaps identification and bridging, resource generation and data collection, capacity-building and information dissemination activities.

  • Good Practice Study on GHG-Inventories for the Waste Sector in Non-Annex l Countries

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    The study aims to provide comprehensive guidance to policy makers and practitioners in developing countries [Non-Annex I countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)] for the preparation of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories for the waste sector. Though GHG emissions from the waste sector are still comparatively low compared to other sectors, they are continuously rising in developing countries due to changing production and consumption patterns. Experience shows that emissions from this sector can be reduced significantly at relatively low costs.

  • Broschüre “Cool bleiben: Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Wachstum, Kühlung und Klimawandel“

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    1. Steigender Energiebedarf und ein Recht auf Kühlung? Darf es ihn geben, den Anspruch auf eine Klimaanlage und einen Kühlschrank – ähnlich wie das Recht auf eine Heizung? 2. Kühle Kette für eine gesunde Versorgung Nach Schätzungen der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) verderben durchschnittlich 30 Prozent, in tropischen Ländern sogar 50 Prozent der Lebensmittel mangels angemessener Lagerung. 3. Grüne Technik und Wertschöpfung Das Zauberwort heißt Ressourceneffizienz. Der Schlüssel in der Kältetechnik dafür sind natürliche Gase. 4.

  • Buenas Practicas de refrigeración

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This manual should provide professional guidance on how to service and maintain refrigeration systems operating with new technology, e.g. ozone- and climate-friendly alternative refrigerants to CFCs and HCFCs. It addresses essential know-how on containment of HFC refrigerants which have a high global warming potential (GWP) and provides information on the safe use of environmental-friendly natural refrigerants, such as CO2, ammonia or hydrocarbons.

  • Climate-friendly Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: A Key Mitigation Option for INDCs

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The working paper is to inform decision makers involved in Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) preparation on the role that the RAC sector could play in countries’ INDC implementation as a key sector to achieve the goals formulated in the INDC. The paper briefly introduces the latest UNFCCC developments, GHG emission trends and reduction potentials of the RAC sector.