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Cook Islands

Official Name:
Cook Islands
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Wayne King
Position:
Director
Phone:
+682 25494
Emails:
wayne.king@cookislands.gov.ck

Energy profile

Cook Islands (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

With regard to the power sector, around 97% of households in Cook Islands are connected to the electricity with 100% grid connection in Rarotonga. Aitutaki, Mangaia and Atiu are other islands in Cook Islands that also have access to 24-hour electricity. The rest of the islands have access to small scale power. Power production and distribution in Rarotonga is managed by Te Aponga Uira O Tumu te Varovaro (TAU). On the other islands, the utility companies are managed by local government.

Renewable energy potential

Biomass energyThere have been no surveys of biomass energy resources in the Cook Islands since the 1980s. Approximately 65% of the land probably has light to dense tree cover with biomass energy potential. It is unlikely; however, that any of this will be, or should be, used for energy purposes, other than meeting existing demand for fuel-wood. Virtually all economically reasonable biomass-based energy generation in the Pacific utilises waste products of concentrated agricultural or wood processing industries. Neither is likely to be developed. There are about 43,000 coconut trees, considered by households as useful nut producers, with over 97% of production used for household purposes. In some Pacific island cities, there is considerable potential for coconut oil from copra as a fuel. In the Cook Islands, copra no longer has economic importance and market prices are far too high for serious consideration of such an option.Biogas Pigs and chickens, as well as other domestic livestock, represent a significant resource for biogas production through anaerobic digestion of their wastes.Solar energySolar energy is an excellent resource in the Cook Islands, particularly for atolls. The Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat collected two years (1995-1996) of horizontal, global solar radiation data through the Southern Pacific Wind and Solar Monitoring Project, which showed that insolation, corrected for a tilted collector, averaged over 5.5 kWh/m2 per day. Satellite data indicates that solar radiation in the northern group is higher than in Rarotonga, but there are no surface measurements to confirm this. The island of Pukapuka in the northern group has a photovoltaic system which provides 95% of the island's power needs, including street lighting and household requirements. Solar water heaters are well established and are found in nearly all the new housing and commercial buildings. Various solar photovoltaic installations for lighting, radio, water pumping, fish freezing and refrigeration on the outer islands but not have suffered from the lack of funds for post-installation support. On the other hand, Telecom has installed many PV generators, ranging from 600-7,800 peak watts with excellent performance and high reliability due to the quality of installations and good maintenance, using well-trained staff.Wind energyThe Forum Secretariat’s wind and solar monitoring project is the main long term data source for Rarotonga wind energy, and is used to estimate the wind regimes of other islands. At Ngatangila Point, wind data recovery was 100% during two years of monitoring. The annual average wind speed was 5.5 m/s. The highest hourly and daily averages were 17.7 m/s and 14.0 m/s respectively. A Danish feasibility study in 1997 estimated annual average wind speeds in the range of 6.1–7.5 m/s (at 30 m), which is thoroughly suitable for economic power generation. Various wind power installation have been installed in the Cook Islands and have suffered from both inappropriate technical design and the lack of expertise for post installation support.HydropowerThe Ministry of Works has monitored water flows at a number of sites on Rarotonga. There were estimates in 1990 of hydropower potential at several sites of possibly several hundred kilowatts, but development costs were too high. In 1987, a Norwegian/SOPAC regional wave energy resource assessment program included the Cook Islands. The southern islands were found to have the highest wave energy resource of all countries included in the study (23–28 kW/m). In the northern Cooks, the resource was also high for such low latitude. Close to the coast of Rarotonga, the buoy measured a long-term average of 24.5 kW/m. There is a large potential resource but installed wave energy systems globally are experimental, and cannot be considered for commercial use.

Energy framework

The Government adopted a National Energy Policy (NEP) in 2003. The policy is a long-term vision for the nation’s energy sector and needs realignment to fully complement the National Sustainable Development Plan (NSDP) 2007 – 2010. The aim of the NEP is “to facilitate reliable, safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective sustainable energy services for the people of the Cook Islands”. The guiding principles of the NEP set goals for sustainability, self-sufficiency, efficient service delivery and financial independence. The NEP aims to increase the utilisation of renewable energy technologies in the Cook Islands energy supply. Under an aggressive effort to introduce renewable energy and improve energy efficiency, it is estimated that the Cook Islands could probably reduce the 2013 level of GHGs by a maximum of 13 Gg of which 84% would be from RE investments (wind, biofuel and solar) and 16% from EE. The policy states that over time, cross-subsidies among electricity users are to be eliminated. Those who receive electricity through renewable energy systems are to pay monthly fees sufficient to meet operating and maintenance costs (including the eventual replacement of the system components). There are broad policies for overall energy planning and management, the power sector, renewable energy, petroleum fuels, transportation, and the environmental aspects of energy.The National Sustainable Development Plan (NSDP) 2007 – 2010 was adopted by the Government in 2007 and recognizes the need to address the binding constraints to growth existing in physical infrastructure and the delivery of infrastructure services, particularly to underpin the economic growth driven by the tourism sector. NSDP guides development and identifies programs for addressing the constraints to growth for the period until 2020. The plan will be updated every 5 years, with a midterm review during each update period. NSDP’s primary strategic objective is “to build a sustainable future that meets economic needs without compromising prudent economic management, environmental integrity, social stability and the needs of future generations.” A new NSDP 2011-2014 will be launched in early 2012.In alignment with the outcomes of the NSDP 2007-2010, the government, elected in November 2010, announced its key priorities during the National Development Economic Summit in April 2011. The key priorities, highlighting the government’s commitment to the plan, include: (i) building improved infrastructure; (ii) achieving 50% renewable energy by 2015 and 100% by 2020; (iii) strengthening public finance management through initiatives like the public expenditure and financial accountability assessment; and (iv) undertaking necessary public sector reforms.The Government drafted a Cook Islands Renewable Energy Chart (CIREC), which outlines how the Cook Islands Government will develop its Renewable Energy Pathway and its strategies to achieve 50% of its electricity source from renewable energy sources by 2015 and 100% by 2020 (the 50/15 – 100/20 policy), supported by a feed-in-tariff. Following the consultation with stakeholders, the Pacific Infrastructure Advisory Centre (PIAC) is preparing a Concept Note for the CIREC Implementation Plan for consultation with the Government and development partners.In response to the keen interest in and assigned high priority to reducing consumption of fossil fuels, expressed by five Pacific developing counties including the Cook Islands, the Asian Development Bank approved regional technical assistance for Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (Phase 2) to provide preliminary assistance to reduce fossil fuel consumption in these five countries through demand-side energy efficiency assessment. The Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (Phase 2) is implemented over a 4-year period between 1 April 2011 and 31 March 2015. The Energy Department is the responsible agency for the Cook Islands.European Community (EC) support for the Cook Islands under the 10th European Development Fund (EDF) for the period 2008 – 2013 focuses on the water and energy sectors based on the NSDP. The high vulnerability of small islands and low-lying atolls to the impacts of climate change has created very strong interest in addressing the problem within Pacific developing countries. Hence, Pacific developing countries, including the Cook Islands, are among the most active countries supporting deep global greenhouse gas emission reductions, and one means by which they may show their tangible support is to manage their own greenhouse gas emissions.The Cook Islands ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 20 April 1993 and the Kyoto Protocol on 27 August 2001.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.

  • Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Switzerland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte is an establishment of reflection, research and practice of industrial ecology. The Institute has an engineering division and an expertise cluster, which enables the Institute to identify new technologies linked to industrial ecology and to advise through a specific methodology adapted to local contexts. The project managers work on the practical execution of mandates and on the implementation of the industrial ecology with a particular attention to Switzerland and developing countries.

  • APEC Climate Center

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Korea
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    APCC is a organization that catalyzes climate information-based solutions through three interconnected pillars of work: climate prediction and information services; climate information application and climate change response; and capacity building. APC freely provides value-added, reliable, and timely climate prediction, while serving as a key climate information center to distribute climate data, prediction and related tools, in order to bridge technology gaps globally.