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Congo, The Democratic Republic of the

Official Name:
Democratic Republic of the Congo

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Specialized agency
Name:
Mr. Bernard Ndaye Nkanka
Position:
Professor and Chief, Section Electricité
Phone:
+243 89891 7700
Emails:
ndaye.nkanka@ista.ac.cd
,
Name:
Mr. Bienvenu Mupenda Kitenge
Position:
Expert, Direction de Développement Durable
Phone:
+243 817252180
Emails:
bienvenumupkit@gmail.com

Energy profile

Democratic Republic of Congo (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Hydroelectricity provides more than 99% of electricity generated in DRC. More than half of the exploitable capacity is at the Hyd’Inga facility, in the west of the country. The long distance between this site and users has had a negative impact on electrification of villages and towns across the country. DRC's physical area (four times that of France) would require thousands of kilometres of electricity lines to reach users. As of 2009, approximately 11.1% of the country’s population had access to the electricity network. According to the government's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), only 13 urban areas have a haphazardly-functioning electrical grid. The power network consists of three interconnected networks in the Western, Southern and Eastern portions of the country, and a number of isolated networks where connection to the main grid was not feasible. The Southern and Western grids are themselves connected via a 1,700km HVDC line of 500 kV. The Western network is also connected to that of the Republic of Congo, from Lingwala to Mbuono, covering 14 km of 220 kV. In total, the Western grid consists of 650 km of 220 kV lines, 185.3 km of 135 kV lines, and 244.5 km of 70 kV lines. The Southern grid consists of 827 km of 220 kV lines, 1,199 km of 120 kV lines, and 144 km of 50 kV lines.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyThe DRC is in a very high level sun belt, with insolation values of between 3.25 and 6.0 kWh/m2/day. This makes installation of photovoltaic systems, as well as use of thermal solar systems, viable throughout the DRC. Currently there are 836 solar systems, with a total power of 83 kW, located in: Equateur (167), Katanga (159), Nord-Kivu (170), the two Kasaï provinces (170), and Bas-Congo (170). There is also the 148 Caritas network system, with a total power of 6.31 kW.Wind energyIn some areas, wind speed is equal to or greater than 1.4 m/s, (1.5 m/s at Matadi, 1.7 m/s at à Gimbi and 1.8 m/s at Kalemie and Goma). However, wind energy is not used in DRC, with the exception of a few pilot facilities, or in isolated cases where the energy is used to supply pumps and lighting. One particular hotspot in the country has been identified, at Ugoma, where wind speeds are in the 6-6.6 m/s range. Due to the country’s vast land area, an estimated total potential for wind energy of 77,380 MW, or 102 TWh exists. However, it is unclear what proportion of this potential is deemed economically feasible.Biomass energyIn terms of tranditional fuel woods, the DRC has around 125 million hectares of forest, with the wood potential estimated at 12.5 billion m3 i.e., 100 m3 of wood per hectare, and annual production is 2 m3/ha. Firewood and charcoal account for the majority of primary energy consumption. However, these fuels waste limited local wood resources, as well as generating considerable pollutants that affect users' health.Biogas production from plant and animal wastes also holds a significant potential in the DRC. Barriers to development are:-the high cost of digesters in relation to average incomes,-the lack of training of users and maintenance staff.There are estimated methane reserves of 50 billion m3 at Lake Kivu, which have been investigated for exploitation by numerous parties.BiofuelsThe country’s potential for biofuel production is vast. However, experiments at the Kiliba molasses distillery suffered the effects of the war. The work has stopped, and there is no indication of it recommencing.Geothermal energyThere is huge geothermal potential in the east of DRC consisting of volcanoes and active geothermal sites, but this is hardly exploited. Hot spring temperatures range from 35 to 90ºC, with flow rate averages ranging from 11 to 162 litres/sec.HydropowerDRC has large hydroelectric resources, estimated at 774 GWh, i.e. 66% of central Africa's potential, 35% of the continent's potential and 8% of world annual potential. This corresponds to a minimum exploitable power capacity of 88,400 MW. A truly vast potential exists for development of further hydroelectric resources, and estimates put potential hydropower export capacity at 51.9 TWh/year, which would create revenues for the country of over 6% of current GDP.

Energy framework

The DRC's energy policy is based on:alleviating poverty and illiteracy;developing projects that integrate rural areas and economically viable regions (including the design of micro or mini electricity power plants not exceeding 20 MW);implementing major industrial projects that demand large amounts of electricity; and,constructing hydroelectric plants, with the focus initially on isolated grids, which will later be interconnected.The development programme includes the following actions to be implemented by 2030:hydroelectricity and other renewables via projects for electrification of the DRC's regions. Hundreds of sites have been identified, of which 55 could be developed in the mid-term at a cost of US$647.3 million.the start of a two-part rural electrification programme,research, development, pilot projects and demonstration centres,development of lowest cost electrical energy supply installations,development of the Inga hydropower site,institutional development, especially concering an independent regulating agency, an energy management unit, and an energy price policy.The European Union Energy Initiative Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI-PDF) through 2008 and 2009 supported the Ministry of Energy in creating an Energy Sector Policy Letter, focusing on separating the functions of the state and encouraging private-sector participation in the energy sector, as well as pragmatic service expansion and regional integration of energy networks. This was supported by an Electricity Code, proposing liberalisation of the electricity sector, and creating free and fair codes of competition, protecting both users and operators. In addition, a Rural Electrification Strategy was also collaboratively developed, targeting increased private-sector involvement in rural electrification, as well as promoting appropriate use of renewable energy sources, and establishing both centralised and decentralised rural electrification schemes, at affordable prices.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.

  • Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht-Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH (HZG) is one of 18 members of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres Germany's largest science organization. One of HZG's scientific organizational entities is the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), a think tank for innovations in the field of climate services.    

  • Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Switzerland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte is an establishment of reflection, research and practice of industrial ecology. The Institute has an engineering division and an expertise cluster, which enables the Institute to identify new technologies linked to industrial ecology and to advise through a specific methodology adapted to local contexts. The project managers work on the practical execution of mandates and on the implementation of the industrial ecology with a particular attention to Switzerland and developing countries.